A migrant from Center Africa, waiting for a work permit and residence permit in Italy, cleans for free the sidewalk in front of a restaurant in Rome. Photo/Archive/ANSA
A migrant from Center Africa, waiting for a work permit and residence permit in Italy, cleans for free the sidewalk in front of a restaurant in Rome. Photo/Archive/ANSA

The Italian Institute for International Political Studies (ISPI) has published a ten-point document taking stock of migration to Italy based as far as possible on objective data. Here are the last five points.

Following the first five points in part one, this is the part two:

  • EU SOLIDARITY: DID OTHER COUNTRIES LEAVE US ALONE? YES - ISPI wrote in its report that ''between September 2015 and April 2018 nearly 350,000 people landed in Italy. Confronted with that situation, emergency reallocation plans started by the European Union only provided for the reallocation of 10 percent of arrivals''. ''The financial resources allocated by Europe for Italy to confront the emergency also did not reach a significant level'', ISPI said. ''On the contrary, European aid only covered a minimum part of Italian expenses''. 

  • THE REPATRIATION OF UNDOCUMENTED MIGRANTS: IS ITALY CARRYING OUT JUST A FEW BECAUSE IT IS INEFFICIENT? NO - Italy has carried out few repatriations ''between 2013 and 2017'', ISPI said - ''only 20 percent of migrants who were ordered to leave the country''.''One of the greatest problems for Italy concerns the nationality of people who are ordered to go back to their home country'', mainly in Africa. ''Rome has succeeded in signing only a few readmission agreements'' and, even when they exist, ''their implementation by governments and local authorities is occasional and patchy''.

  • INTEGRATING REFUGEES: IS IT MORE COMPLEX (AND COSTLY) COMPARED TO OTHER MIGRANTS? YES - ''As time passes, the employment rate of refugees tends to increase, converging with that of ''economic'' migrants although some 15 years are necessary before it exceeds 60 percent'', the Italian institute explained in its study. Moreover, ''a humanitarian migrant has the right to be welcomed in a dignified way, which costs the Italian State about 11,000 euros a year; such a cost continues throughout the period of permanence within the hosting system. For this reason too it is important to invest in integration''. 
  • MIGRATORY PRESSURE FROM AFRICA: WILL IT DECREASE IN THE LONG-TERM? NO: According to ISPI's analysis, ''the increase of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa is proportional to the increase of the population'', even if the causes of migration have changed since 1990. Looking at the future, according to a UN forecast, ''the population of sub-Sahara is forecast to double once again, from one billion in 2017 to 2.2 billion in 2050''.If the migration trend remains the same as the one registered over the past few years (2.5 percent of the population), ISPI wrote, ''the number of international migrants from sub-Saharan Africa would grow from 24 to 54 million''.

  • IS 'HELPING THEM AT HOME' AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY? IT DEPENDS - ''Recent studies have shown that there is a relationship between the level of economic development of a country and its net emigration rate. But this correlation doesn't always back the theory that helping poor countries develop is enough to stem migration flows'', the institute explained, stressing that the financial support would have to be significant. Instead, aid from OECD countries to sub-Saharan Africa ''has remained unvaried since 2010'' with Italy cutting aid ''by over 70 percent''.


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